Форум » Испания - гроза морей » Корабль San Felipe 104-110 (1690-1693) » Ответить
Корабль San Felipe 104-110 (1690-1693)
Эд: Вот подробности возникновения этого мифа: Historic authenticity of the Spanish SAN FELIPE of 1690 The SAN FELIPE is one of the most favoured ships among the ship model builders. The model is elegant, very beautifully designed, and makes a decorative piece of art to be displayed at home or in the office. Doubts on San Felipe's historic authenticity I have heard voiced or seen many times, mainly in forums on ship history and ship modelling. There was the contribution of Toni Alvarez Silva of April 1999 in some forum, who went three times to the Naval Museum in Madrid. He could not get any information from them whether the San Felipe existed or not, but was told that the Real Felipe (launched 1732 in Guarnizo, see below) was the first Spanish ship of the line with three decks. He also contacted Mantua and Artesania Latina and asked them about their model kits of the San Felipe, without getting convincing responses. Short contributions in forums are one thing - a comprehensive treatise by a historian is better. In March 2007 Thomas Feige published such a treatise in a German journal on ship building history and modelling (Thomas Feige, "Der spanische Dreidecker SAN FELIPE von 1690 - Phantasie oder Wirklichkeit", Das Logbuch, Arbeitskreis Historischer Schiffbau e.V., Heft 2007-1, in German). According to Thomas Feige, the San Felipe model is based on reconstruction drawings published by the Italian Vincenzo Lusci in 1966 who referred to some 19th century Spanish historian. Lusci described the ship as a first rate with 104 - 110 cannon that was launched in La Coruna in 1690 and was lost in 1705 after a battle with 35 English ships. In 1993 Panart/Mantua made a model ship kit based on Lusci's plans which was bought by many model ship makers. The three San Felipe ship models (1, 2, 3) in this webpage were most probably made from the Panart/Mantua kit. Thomas Feige outlined in his treatise that this ship did not exist in the Spanish navy at that time. Spain could not have afforded to build such an expensive ship in the 1690s, and there was no proven historic evidence. In addition, there was no major engagement of an English and Spanish fleet in 1705 that involved such a large number of ships. Only after 1732 when the Real Felipe was launched in Guarnizo did Spain have a three-decker in her navy service that was built in Spain. It seems that Vincenzo Lusci did not do his homework when simply referring to the 19th century historian. To me it looks as if Lusci reconstructed the San Felipe by referring to French prototypes in ship building. France and England were more advanced in naval architecture at that time. The French three-decker Royal Louis that was launched in Toulon in April 1692 looks quite similar in hull and rigging, except for the round stern gallery. This San Felipe model shows the type of ship that was built in France at the end of the 17th century. It may well have been an example that the Spanish ship builders would have liked to copy. Documentation on the Royal Louis of 1692: Of that French ship there are some fine drawings, published by Amiral Paris in 1871 (Amiral Paris, "Souvenirs de la marine. Collections de plans ou dessins de navires et de bateaux anciens ou modernes", 1871. Reprint by: Editions des 4 Seigneurs, Grenoble 1975, see my link list). There is also more recent literature on the Royal Louis of 1692, giving drawings on hull and rigging that are slightly different from those of Amiral Paris: J. Boudriot, "Les Royal Louis", Neptunia No. 112, p. 9 - 16, 1973 (in French), and Johann Groebner, "Der franzoesische Dreidecker im 17. Jahrhundert", Das Logbuch, Heft 1996-1 p. 4 und Heft 1996-2, p. 83 (in German). I show here six drawings of the Royal Louis of 1692, taken from the publication of Amiral Paris. If you click on a drawing you will get that drawing in high resolution. I did not take flatbed scans of the drawings but simply photographed them. So the drawings are slightly distorted by the rounding of the book's pages. Please take your time to compare the drawings with the many photos of the three San Felipe models. You will find many similarities in hull and rigging, except for the round stern galleries (the maker of model No. 2 did put much effort in sails and rigging, but made a mistake when giving the ship a copper sheathing. That was introduced only in the second half of the 18th century). Vincenzo Lusci seems to have followed the documentation of contemporary French naval archtecture in his reconstruction of the San Felipe. He seems to have used many of their ship building elements. My conclusion: The Spanish three-decker San Felipe of 1690 most probably did not exist. But there might well have been some Spanish ship builder who wanted to launch such a ship, using established technology from France. The Panart/Mantua model shows the state of ship building and naval architecture of the end of the 17th century in Europe, as good as a model kit of that size can do. Здесь - чертежи Royal Louis 1692. www.modelships.de/Verkaufte_Schiffe/San_Felipe_2/xxStart_eng.htm As far as the 1691, San Felipe, lamentably, this ship did not exist. The life of San Felipe 1691 began in the middle of the twentieth century when a Barcelonian model maker, based on illustrations of Spanish, English and French ships of the 18th century, designed plans of this ship. These plans have been much successful and numerous companies have published and utilized them: Lusci, Sergal, Amati, Mantua, etc. Paradoxically this false ship is nowadays the most famous of all the Soanish shios labeled San Feline." Attilio Cucari, in his book Sailing Ships of the World (Veleros de todo el mundo), even offers numerous details, seemingly based on the literature prepared for the model companies. Before reaching the conclusion that it is an invented boat, the Marine Museum of Barcelona completed numerous searches. They contacted Cruz Azpetegui of the Naval Museum of Madrid, a specialist in ships of the centuries XVII and XVIII who confirmed the Museum staffs suspicions. Mrs. Busquets went on to describe all the ships named San Felipe or Real Felipe that existed between the 17th and 18th centuries: Galleon San Felipe: Constructed between 1623 and 1628 in the Royal Shipyards of Zorroza, near Bilbao. The shipwright was Martin de Arana. The king who ordered ' the construction of this galleon, and five more, was Felipe FV. The wood to construct the keel was oak, pine was employed for the superstructure, and walnut for the furniture of the stern cabin. The book Six Galleons for the King of Spain: Imperial Defense in the Early Seventeenth Century, by Carla Phillips, discloses the decoration of this galleon. The galleon San Felipe took part in Battle of the Dunes on 16 September of 1639. San Felipe (formerly El Real) 1716: 70 guns. Constructed in Sant Feliu de Guíxols. On it flew the flag of Gen. D. Antonio Gaztañeta in 11 of August of 1718 in that, with the square of its control, it maintained a combat, from you are from which, it had to surrender to very superior forces, after losing 200 men, to be hurt! that head and his Flag Capt. D. Pedro Despois which it replaced under the command of the Sergeant Major of the Squadron, Escuadra M. Tordes. San Felipe 1726: 70 guns. Constructed in Guarnizo by Lorenzo Arzueta. In 1732 it took part in the expedition of Orán flying the ensign of Gen. Lt. Cornejo and in 1741 was scuttled in Cartagena Indias on the occasion of the English invasion. He appears mentioned in the book of Castanedo Gallant: Guarnizo, a shipyard of the crown. Real Felipe 1732: 114 guns. One of the first Spanish ships to comprise three full decks. Built in Guarnizo by Autran. In 1744 it flew the ensign off). Juan Navarrese Jose and was in the battle of Tolón in which it was damaged, and the flag captain, D. Nicholas Gualdino, was killed. In 1750 it was scrapped in Cartagena. Naval Architecture of Wooden Spanish Ships by Artiñano has an illustration on page 153. The Naval Museum of Madrid has plans of the rigging and a scale model. В заключение можно отметить, что испанское судостроение в конце 17 века находилось в полном упадке, в 1680-е гг. почти все новые корабли строились по испанким заказам в Голландии, в 1713-14 гг. эмиссары Альберони конкурировали с послами Петра I, перехватывая друг у друга корабли second-hand в Англии, Голландии и Дюнкерке. И еще: последний галеон в Португалии был спущен в 1677 г. Примерно в это же время исчезает понятие "галеон" как большой корабль (с 2 деками) и в Испании. В 1680-е гг. все вообще купные военные корабли (в т.ч. и построенные как галеоны) именуются в Испании navio, в Португалии - nao. Галеонами же теперь называют вообще все испанские (или португальские) торговые суда, плавающие в Америку.
Ответов - 2
Benbow: А в чем байка-то? В том что Сан-Феллипебыл сделан по французским лекалам?
Эд: Benbow пишет: А в чем байка-то? В том что Сан-Феллипебыл сделан по французским лекалам? Байка в том, что Сан Фелипе был "построен" по французским чертежам, но не в 17 веке, а в середине 20-го барселонским моделистом.
полная версия страницы